Blood – Anaemia

Blood – Anaemia

Blood – Components

The Red blood cells (erythrocytes) constitute about —  44 %              white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes) around — 1 % .                 and  the fluid portion, (plasma )  —  55 % 

Total amount of blood in human adults is about 60 ml. per kg. body wt.        An average young male has a plasma volume of about  35 ml.                               Red cell volume  30 ml.  per kg. body wt.                                  

Some of the most vital functions of Blood are : 

1. Transport of nutrition:

The blood is the means whereby all nourishment is transported to the cells.

2. Transport of respiratory gases:

The blood transports Oxygen as oxy hemoglobin from the lungs to the blood cells and returns carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs for excretion.

3. Acts as a Vehicle:

The blood transports hormones and enzymes from their place of origin to their target organs and tissues (place of activity).

4. Drainage of Waste Products:

The blood removes all waste products from the tissues and cells. These waste products are transported to the appropriate organs for excretion-lungs, kidney’s, intestine, skin etc.

5. Blood Clotting:

By the mechanism of clotting, loss of blood cells and body fluids is prevented.

6. Regulation of body temperature:

Blood helps to maintain the body temperature by distributing the heat produced by the chemical activity of the cells evenly, throughout the body.

7. Defense actions: The blood aids in the defense of the body against the invasion of micro-organisms and their toxins due to:

(a) The phagocyte action of neutrophils and monocytes.

(b) The presence of antibodies and antitoxins.

8. Regulates blood pressure:

Blood regulates blood pressure.

The characteristic colour is imparted by hemoglobin, a unique iron-containing protein. Hemoglobin brightens in colour.

Hemoglobin = Iron + Protein

Qualitative or/and Quantitative lower than normal levels of Hemoglobin in Blood is known as Anaemia

Normal Haemoglobin level For men,  13.5 to17.5 grams / dl

                                        For women, 12.0 to 15.5 grams / dl

Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiologic needs,

This is the most common type of anemia worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate iron, your body can’t produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells.

Hemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If you have too few or abnormal red blood cells, or your hemoglobin is abnormal or low, the cells in your body will not get enough oxygen. 

What Causes Anemia?

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There are more than 400 types of anemia, which are divided into three groups: 

  1. Anemia Caused by Blood Loss 

Red blood cells can be lost through bleeding, which often can occur slowly over a long period of time, and can go undetected. This kind of chronic bleeding commonly results from the following: 

The body may produce too few blood cells or the blood cells may not function correctly. In either case, anemia can result. Red blood cells may be faulty or decreased due to abnormal red blood cells or a lack of minerals and vitamins needed for red blood cells to work properly. Conditions associated with these causes of anemia include the following:

Haemolytic Anemia – Fatal one. Requires continuous treatment.

If blood flow ceases, death will occur within minutes.

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